›Exoclimes III The Diversity of Planetary Atmospheres
- Earth: atmosphere, oceans, interior, paleo-climates, generalizations to exoplanets
- Solar System: Venus, Mars and Titan, gas giants: atmospheres, clouds, circulation models
- Gas-rich and rock/ice exoplanets: atmospheres, spectral and evolutionary models, climate models
- Brown dwarfs and directly imaged exoplanets: observations, spectral and evolutionary models, clouds, the L-T transition, temporal variability
Planetary atmospheres are complex and evolving entities, as mankind is rapidly coming to realise whilst attempting to understand, forecast and mitigate human-induced climate change. In the Solar System, our neighbours Venus and Mars provide striking examples of two endpoints of planetary evolution, runaway greenhouse and loss of atmosphere to space. The variety of extra-solar planets brings a wider angle to the issue: from scorching “hot Jupiters” to ocean worlds, exo-atmospheres explore many configurations unknown in the Solar System, such as iron clouds, silicate rains, extreme plate tectonics, and steam volcanoes. Exoplanetary atmospheres have recently become accessible to observations, starting with hot gas giants, and gradually moving towards more Earth-like planets.